In most of the US, now is the ideal time to plant garlic, since the cloves you plant will establish roots before the ground freezes. They require virtually no care, and you can then harvest them in June or July.
If you're squeezed for space, you can also plant garlic in containers. Start with good quality potting soil, and fill most of a container with it. Then plant one garlic clove (buy in a garden or hardware store) per small pot. Push the clove about an inch under the soil surface. Water, then set along the side of your house out of the way of cold winds, and let it winter there. It's always so fun to see the green garlic shoots peeking up in the Spring!
Source: Flickr User lburiedpaul